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# Mathematical Programming Glossary

Algorithm
a precise set of instructions, formula or formulas, used to solve a specific problem.
Argument
a value or reference passed to a function, procedure, subroutine, command or program.
Array
a systematic arrangement of objects, usually aggregate data.
Barcode
digitally readable code; barcode labels use binary code
Binary
base 2. binary or bit code uses the digits zero and one, zero being off, one being on.
Bit
a binary digit, zero or one.
Byte
eight bits or one character.
Combinatorics
a broad branch of mathematics studying counting and combinations of numbers.
Discrete mathematics
the branch of math dealing with finite numbers or problems.
Duality
dichotomy, two sided.
Epigraph
f : Rn?R; the set of points lying above or on a graph.
Factorial
product of a set of integers, x! is the notation for factorial. example: 3! means 3 x 2 x 1 or the product equals six.
Fortran
Formula Translation, a second generation high level programming language.
Function
f(x); a procedure that may return varied values using the same argument.
Hexadecimal
base 16, 0-9 and A-F represent 11-15 for 16 numbers. example: A hexadecimal can be easily translated to a binary number or base 2 number.
Iteration
a loop or repetition of a set of programming instructions.
Linear
the shortest distance between point a and point b or a straight line.
Logic
AND, OR or NOT, logic is what is true or self-evident.
Mathematical programming
theory, application and computational method for finding the best solution to a problem.
Null
a negative, no value, a false expression.
Object
a self-contained module of data and its associated processing
Parameter
formal argument; a variable determined by indirect methodology.
Permutations
the numbers or objects of a set or group and their possible combinations.
Product
two expressions multiplied together.
Quadratic formula
x equals negative b plus or minus the square root of b squared minus 4ac over 2a.
Queue
data structure in which the elements are kept in order and operate on a first-in-first-out structure (new elements are added to the rear, and removal of elements is done from the front).
Recursion
a subset of iteration; when a function calls itself.
Sequencing
the order of succession.
Series
three or more items arranged in succession.
Stack
a data structure that accepts items in sequence.
Variable
a named memory location in which a program can store intermediate results.